How Laser Scans And VR Are Preserving London’s Hidden ‘Mail Rail’

Deep in the heart of London, buried beneath 70 feet of soil and concrete, lies a hidden underground railway. For almost 80 years, the UK’s «Mail Rail» transported letters and parcels between the capital’s main post offices and a few overground train stations, where they could then be delivered across the country. It was a unique way to avoid street congestion, but by 2003 the line had become uneconomical to run. The decision was made to shut it down and it’s laid dormant ever since, invisible to the public.

Now, the British Postal Museum & Archive (BPMA) wants to open the Mail Rail to the masses. The organization’s plan is to open a new museum near Mount Pleasant station. Convert a section of the line into a ride. It will, inevitably, mean making some changes to the railway as it stands today. But before any renovations are made, the BPMA wants to preserve the space with a digital archive. Rather than simply taking some photos though, or moving the best artifacts into glass cabinets, the organization opted for a technology called LIDAR. Similar to radar or sonar, this process involves firing a laser in every direction and measuring the time it takes to reflect off other objects. All of these recordings then create a «point cloud,» which specialist companies can use to create 3D models. It’s also the same technology that self-driving cars use to detect and analyze their surroundings.

Hiring the experts
To record such an unusual site, BPMA enlisted ScanLab Projects. Based in London’s Bethnal Green, the company has used LIDAR to document a raft of spectacular places, including the D-Day landing beaches in Normandy, France; a shipping gallery in London’s Science Museum; and parts of the Arctic Ocean near Svalbard, Norway. After capturing each location with the laser scanner, ScanLab goes over them again with a DSLR camera. Back in the office, the team then flattens the 3D model into 2D panoramas and lines them up with the DSLR photos. The images from the laser scanner contain depth information, meaning the colors captured by the DSLR can later be applied to the 3D model.

«Conceptually, this removes the need to take a photograph and choose the angle when you’re at the location,» ScanLab co-founder William Trossell says. «You can come back into our office and spend months, or years finding exactly the right perspective.»

If any space deserves such meticulous treatment, it’s the Mail Rail. While it was operational, the carriages would carry up to 4 million letters along 23 miles of track every day. It was the first driverless, electrified railway and the only purpose-built underground mail transit system in the world. The line was originally called the «Post Office Underground Railway» and it launched in 1927, but the initial tunneling work was actually completed a decade earlier. Its structural integrity proved useful in World War I when it was used to protect art pieces from The National Portrait Gallery, the Tate and the British Museum during German bombing raids. In World War II, the network also doubled as dormitories for post office staff.

Most importantly, the Mail Rail has been left untouched since its closure. A few engineers still work on the line to check for water damage and other structural problems, but otherwise nothing has been moved. Royal Mail never planned to close the Mail Rail down completely, so on the last «official» day in 2003, staff simply downed their tools and left. They unknowingly created a near-perfect time capsule, a snapshot in history.

ScanLab spent five days mapping the railway with two separate scanning teams. Even now, the BPMA isn’t sure how it’ll use the data inside the new museum. VR is one option, but the team is also considering mobile apps. Visitors could hold their phones up at the walls, membrane housing for instance, and see the original space like a rift in the fabric of time. Parts could also be used as projections during the ride, or as an alternative experience for visitors with disabilities. «For people with claustrophobia, or people that aren’t comfortable with enclosed spaces, it’s not going to be a pleasant experience on the ride,» a BPMA spokesperson said. «However, we want them to be able to experience it, so applications like this are some of the options we’re now exploring to try and bring that experience to them.»

LIDAR data can be used for many different purposes. A surveyor might be interested in the raw geographical information — just a spreadsheet with the numbers the LIDAR spat out. An architect, however, could request a top-down plan of a building. «We can take the roof off the structure and then pull the first floor away from the second floor — almost architecturally dissect the building,» Trossell adds. «Then it becomes a good tool for investigative processes, where you’re trying to forensically re-examine a crime scene, or work out where the light sockets are because you need to know where to put the new ones.» Other LIDAR and 3D visualization companies are doing similar work; Digital Surveys, for instance, mapped a ship called the Northern Wave vessel to help engineers design new upgrades; Historic Scotland and the Glasgow School of Art are scanning 10 historic landmarks, including five World Heritage Sites in Scotland, for preservation purposes.

Taking a trip in VR

LIDAR visualizations are rarely used in VR experiences though. That’s hardly a surprise, given VR is an emerging technology and major players such as Oculus VR, Sony and Valve have yet to release consumer hardware. But ScanLab has been pressing forward. Exploring how its model could be adapted for virtual reality. In its spacious design studio in London’s Bethnal Green, the company has rigged up an Oculus Rift DK2 headset with plastic prongs and water treatment accessory white balls attached on top. Six cameras on the ceiling track their whereabouts. Replicate the users’ movement inside the Mail Rail visualization.

The experience differs from typical VR demos because it shows an exact reproduction of a real-world location, rather than a level from a video game. The idea is that users will be drawn to the Mail Rail’s nooks and crannies and everyday objects knowing that, over a decade ago, real people were interacting with them. Walking through the model from the same perspective as an employee should, in theory, help people to visualize what it must’ve been like down there, especially during the two World Wars.

Gallery: Mail Rail in VR | 15 Photos


For now, ScanLab is only loading a portion of its 3D model inside the Oculus Rift. Booting up the entire visualization, at least with their current hardware, would involve too much processing. Not that it really matters — ScanLab’s motion-tracking setup is in the middle of its office, so testers can only walk three or four steps before bumping into tables and chairs anyway. At such close quarters, the quality of the model isn’t perfect either. Everything looks just a tad grainy, like an analog TV that hasn’t been tuned correctly. In addition, ScanLab can only load a single LIDAR scan at once. It means that if you look in places that, at the time of capture, were blocked by other objects in front of the scanner, you’ll sometimes see black «data shadows.» However, this experience is only an experiment — a version for the museum would no doubt incorporate a more complete model.

VR is an immersive way to experience any 3D space. But ultimately, the work BPMA and ScanLab have done goes beyond a cumbersome set of goggles. They have digitally archived a place that few people have ever seen before, and soon it’ll be available to anyone that’s able to travel to London. Should you cherished this post along with you desire to obtain guidance about water filter element ( i implore you to check out the web-page. In humanity’s quest to preserve historic spaces, LIDAR is proving itself to be a valuable tool. The challenge now is to apply that data in a way that benefits the upcoming museum and the stories its curators want to tell.

[Image Credits: British Postal Museum & Archive/Miles Willis (Lead photo, Mount Pleasant Mail Rail station photos); ScanLab Projects (Mail Rail graphic and gallery)]

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Reverse Osmosis (RO) Membrane Market Size, Share & Forecast 2022-2022

Keeping in mind the uncertainties of COVID-19, we are continuously tracking and evaluating the direct as well as the indirect influence of the pandemic on different end use industries. These insights are included in the report as a major market contributor.

Reverse osmosis (RO) refers to a technology that deionizes or reverse osmosis membrane store purifies water by pushing it through a semi-permeable membrane under high pressure. The RO membrane is a thin layer of filtering material that separates contaminating agents and dissolved salts from drinking water. It consists of three layers, namely a polyester support web, a microporous polysulfone interlayer and an ultra-thin polyamide barrier layer. These membranes can be used in both industrial processes and for obtaining potable water. Nowadays, they are increasingly being used across the globe for water purification, as the RO process offers an environment-friendly and cost-effective alternative to the conventionally used techniques such as distillation and evaporation.

In recent years, the rising pollution levels, industrial development, population growth, and climate change have resulted in the high demand for clean and fresh water worldwide. This, in turn, has prompted consumers to opt for numerous water filtration technologies, the most preferred among which is RO. Additionally, a significant number of countries are employing seawater desalination, which relies on the process of RO for removing the excessive amount of salt from water to make it fit for use. To see more info on Reverse Osmosis membrane Store take a look at our own web-page. Apart from this, the governments of various nations are spreading awareness among the masses about water-borne diseases and promoting the use of water filtration systems. Moreover, the leading companies are developing hybrid and advanced membrane technologies that can provide longer membrane life and lower the replacement rate. These advancements are expected to escalate the utilization of RO membrane housing membranes in power plants, municipal water treatment, and mining and water treatment parts chemical industries.

Key Market Segmentation:

IMARC Group provides an analysis of the key trends in each sub-segment of the global reserve osmosis (RO) membrane market, along with forecasts at the global, regional and country level from 2021-2026. Our report has categorized the market based on material type, filter module and end-use.

Breakup by Material Type:

— Cellulose-Based Membranes Cellulose Acetate (CA) Membranes
— Nitrocellulose Membranes

— Polyamide (PA) Composite Membranes
— GO-Based Polyacrylonitrile Membrane

Breakup by Filter Module:

Note: Values and trends in the above chart consists of dummy data and are only shown here for representation purpose. Kindly contact us for the actual market size and trends.

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— Plate and Frame (PF) — Spiral
— Pillow-Shaped

Breakup by End-Use:

— Desalination Systems — Seawater
— Brackish Water

— Residential and Commercial
— Municipal
— Industrial

Breakup by Region:

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— North America — United States
— Canada

— China
— Japan
— India
— South Korea
— Australia
— Indonesia
— Others

— Germany
— France
— United Kingdom
— Italy
— Spain
— Russia
— Others

— Brazil
— Mexico
— Others

Competitive Landscape:

The competitive landscape of the industry has also been examined with some of the key players being Axeon Water Technologies, Dow Water & Process Solutions Inc., GE Water & Process Technologies, Hydranautics (A Nitto Denko Group Company), Keensen Technology Co. Ltd., Lanxess, LG Chem, Microdyn-Nadir GmbH, Toray Industries Inc., Toyobo Co. Ltd., Vontron Membrane Technology Co. Ltd., etc. How has the global reverse osmosis membrane market performed so far. How will it perform in the coming years?
— What are the key regional markets?
— What has been the impact of COVID-19 on the global reverse osmosis membrane market?
— What is the breakup of the market based on the material type?
— What is the breakup of the market based on the filter module?
— What is the breakup of the market based on the end-use?
— What are the various stages in the value chain of the industry? What are the key driving factors. Challenges in the industry?
— What is the structure of the global reverse osmosis membrane market and who are the key players?
— What is the degree of competition in the industry?

Water Purifier Market Growth, Industry Analysis, Business Opportunities And Latest Innovations

The water purifier market is anticipated to grow by US$78.6 Billion by 2025 rapidly growing at a CAGR of 17.37%during the forecast period. The global water purifier market is driven by increase in the contaminants, chemical substances, dissolved solids, and other materials. These factors have helped shape the water purifier market. Are expected to boost the growth. Companies in the water purifier market could also face challenges such as lack of awareness about the benefits of pure water along with lack of access to equipment parts. The details covered in the water purifier market report cover all the aspects of the industry. water purifier market analysts have also shared growth projections in the report and have suggested water purifier market players to plan growth strategies accordingly.

The water purifier market is supported by rising preference towards purified water and government initiatives. The population growth around the world and increasing demand of water purifier market based services and products also support the market growth. However, the water purifier market growth can be affected due to the high cost of product parts and replacement material. The report covers all such details which will help companies in the water purifier market to strengthen their business plan and improve their product portfolio. The water purifier market research report also provides company profiles of major companies. The company profiles of many organizations operating in the water purifier market report highlights crucial details like company size, revenue growth, and details of mergers and acquisitions taking place in the water purifier market. New companies and established businesses can plan their strategies based on this data provided in the water purifier market research report.

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Regional Overview

Companies in the water purifier market are spread across the world. The water purifier market report provides major information about regional markets of North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific (APAC), and the rest of the world. The North American water purifier market has many companies across the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Europe has companies in the water purifier market across Germany, France, Spain, Italy, and the United Kingdom. A detailed analysis of the water purifier market across India, China, and Japan in the Asia-Pacific region is also presented in the report. The water purifier market of the Middle East, Africa, and water treatment parts other regions has also been studied by analysts. The regional analysis of the water purifier market can be found in the market research report.

Market Segmentation

The global water purifier market has been segmented based on end-users, product, and devices. On the basis of devices, the market for water purifiers is segmented based on countertop, wall mounted, faucet-mounted, and under-the-sink (UTS), tabletop. Additionally, the market on the basis of product, is segmented into UV water purifier, RO water purifier, and activated carbon filters. The global market for water filter cartridge purifier is also covered based on the end-users segment which is further split into residential and commercial.

Factors like highest population density in countries such as China and India and growing commercial sector support the water purifier market growth. The performance of the water purifier market has also been studied for the past and current years. Additionally, the water purifier market report provides analysis of these segments. The water purifier market segmental analysis provided in the report offers major details about the water purifier market performance and future.

Industry News

Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane filtration is used for most water purifiers that you can find on the market, and the price is usually more than 1,000 yuan (~$150). In certain situations, they need to be attached to a source of electricity and collect waste water as well. A much cheaper option, priced at 499 yuan (~$76), has just been introduced by Xiaomi. Xiaolang Ultrafiltration Water Purifier is the name of the water purifier. Is presently accessible on the Youpin website.

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About Market Research Future:

Market Research Future (MRFR) is an esteemed company with a reputation of serving clients across domains of information technology (IT), healthcare, water filter cartridge review and chemicals. Our analysts undertake painstaking primary. Secondary research to provide a seamless report with a 360 degree perspective. If you have any sort of inquiries concerning where and the best ways to utilize water filter cartridge review, you could contact us at the web site. Data is compared against reputed organizations, trustworthy databases, and international surveys for producing impeccable reports backed with graphical and water treatment parts statistical information. We at MRFR provide syndicated. Customized reports to clients as per their liking. Our consulting services are aimed at eliminating business risks. Driving the bottomline margins of our clients. The hands-on experience of analysts and capability of performing astute research through interviews, surveys, and polls are a statement of our prowess. We constantly monitor the market for any fluctuations. Update our reports on a regular basis.