How Laser Scans And VR Are Preserving London’s Hidden ‘Mail Rail’

Deep in the heart of London, buried beneath 70 feet of soil and concrete, lies a hidden underground railway. For almost 80 years, the UK’s «Mail Rail» transported letters and parcels between the capital’s main post offices and a few overground train stations, where they could then be delivered across the country. It was a unique way to avoid street congestion, but by 2003 the line had become uneconomical to run. The decision was made to shut it down and it’s laid dormant ever since, invisible to the public.

Now, the British Postal Museum & Archive (BPMA) wants to open the Mail Rail to the masses. The organization’s plan is to open a new museum near Mount Pleasant station. Convert a section of the line into a ride. It will, inevitably, mean making some changes to the railway as it stands today. But before any renovations are made, the BPMA wants to preserve the space with a digital archive. Rather than simply taking some photos though, or moving the best artifacts into glass cabinets, the organization opted for a technology called LIDAR. Similar to radar or sonar, this process involves firing a laser in every direction and measuring the time it takes to reflect off other objects. All of these recordings then create a «point cloud,» which specialist companies can use to create 3D models. It’s also the same technology that self-driving cars use to detect and analyze their surroundings.

Hiring the experts
To record such an unusual site, BPMA enlisted ScanLab Projects. Based in London’s Bethnal Green, the company has used LIDAR to document a raft of spectacular places, including the D-Day landing beaches in Normandy, France; a shipping gallery in London’s Science Museum; and parts of the Arctic Ocean near Svalbard, Norway. After capturing each location with the laser scanner, ScanLab goes over them again with a DSLR camera. Back in the office, the team then flattens the 3D model into 2D panoramas and lines them up with the DSLR photos. The images from the laser scanner contain depth information, meaning the colors captured by the DSLR can later be applied to the 3D model.

«Conceptually, this removes the need to take a photograph and choose the angle when you’re at the location,» ScanLab co-founder William Trossell says. «You can come back into our office and spend months, or years finding exactly the right perspective.»

If any space deserves such meticulous treatment, it’s the Mail Rail. While it was operational, the carriages would carry up to 4 million letters along 23 miles of track every day. It was the first driverless, electrified railway and the only purpose-built underground mail transit system in the world. The line was originally called the «Post Office Underground Railway» and it launched in 1927, but the initial tunneling work was actually completed a decade earlier. Its structural integrity proved useful in World War I when it was used to protect art pieces from The National Portrait Gallery, the Tate and the British Museum during German bombing raids. In World War II, the network also doubled as dormitories for post office staff.

Most importantly, the Mail Rail has been left untouched since its closure. A few engineers still work on the line to check for water damage and other structural problems, but otherwise nothing has been moved. Royal Mail never planned to close the Mail Rail down completely, so on the last «official» day in 2003, staff simply downed their tools and left. They unknowingly created a near-perfect time capsule, a snapshot in history.

ScanLab spent five days mapping the railway with two separate scanning teams. Even now, the BPMA isn’t sure how it’ll use the data inside the new museum. VR is one option, but the team is also considering mobile apps. Visitors could hold their phones up at the walls, membrane housing for instance, and see the original space like a rift in the fabric of time. Parts could also be used as projections during the ride, or as an alternative experience for visitors with disabilities. «For people with claustrophobia, or people that aren’t comfortable with enclosed spaces, it’s not going to be a pleasant experience on the ride,» a BPMA spokesperson said. «However, we want them to be able to experience it, so applications like this are some of the options we’re now exploring to try and bring that experience to them.»

LIDAR data can be used for many different purposes. A surveyor might be interested in the raw geographical information — just a spreadsheet with the numbers the LIDAR spat out. An architect, however, could request a top-down plan of a building. «We can take the roof off the structure and then pull the first floor away from the second floor — almost architecturally dissect the building,» Trossell adds. «Then it becomes a good tool for investigative processes, where you’re trying to forensically re-examine a crime scene, or work out where the light sockets are because you need to know where to put the new ones.» Other LIDAR and 3D visualization companies are doing similar work; Digital Surveys, for instance, mapped a ship called the Northern Wave vessel to help engineers design new upgrades; Historic Scotland and the Glasgow School of Art are scanning 10 historic landmarks, including five World Heritage Sites in Scotland, for preservation purposes.

Taking a trip in VR

LIDAR visualizations are rarely used in VR experiences though. That’s hardly a surprise, given VR is an emerging technology and major players such as Oculus VR, Sony and Valve have yet to release consumer hardware. But ScanLab has been pressing forward. Exploring how its model could be adapted for virtual reality. In its spacious design studio in London’s Bethnal Green, the company has rigged up an Oculus Rift DK2 headset with plastic prongs and water treatment accessory white balls attached on top. Six cameras on the ceiling track their whereabouts. Replicate the users’ movement inside the Mail Rail visualization.

The experience differs from typical VR demos because it shows an exact reproduction of a real-world location, rather than a level from a video game. The idea is that users will be drawn to the Mail Rail’s nooks and crannies and everyday objects knowing that, over a decade ago, real people were interacting with them. Walking through the model from the same perspective as an employee should, in theory, help people to visualize what it must’ve been like down there, especially during the two World Wars.

Gallery: Mail Rail in VR | 15 Photos


For now, ScanLab is only loading a portion of its 3D model inside the Oculus Rift. Booting up the entire visualization, at least with their current hardware, would involve too much processing. Not that it really matters — ScanLab’s motion-tracking setup is in the middle of its office, so testers can only walk three or four steps before bumping into tables and chairs anyway. At such close quarters, the quality of the model isn’t perfect either. Everything looks just a tad grainy, like an analog TV that hasn’t been tuned correctly. In addition, ScanLab can only load a single LIDAR scan at once. It means that if you look in places that, at the time of capture, were blocked by other objects in front of the scanner, you’ll sometimes see black «data shadows.» However, this experience is only an experiment — a version for the museum would no doubt incorporate a more complete model.

VR is an immersive way to experience any 3D space. But ultimately, the work BPMA and ScanLab have done goes beyond a cumbersome set of goggles. They have digitally archived a place that few people have ever seen before, and soon it’ll be available to anyone that’s able to travel to London. Should you cherished this post along with you desire to obtain guidance about water filter element ( i implore you to check out the web-page. In humanity’s quest to preserve historic spaces, LIDAR is proving itself to be a valuable tool. The challenge now is to apply that data in a way that benefits the upcoming museum and the stories its curators want to tell.

[Image Credits: British Postal Museum & Archive/Miles Willis (Lead photo, Mount Pleasant Mail Rail station photos); ScanLab Projects (Mail Rail graphic and gallery)]

Orba, the musical grapefruit, now lets you design your own synth sounds

Let It Stand For 3 Hours

Vinegar can be used to prevent grease buildup in your oven.

Mos­t people find that the kitchen­ is the most difficult room in their home to keep clean. And with good reason! ­With an endless supply of spills, drips, greasy pans­, and foot traffic, kitchen cleanup can feel like an endless series of tasks.

But thanks to vinegar, you don’t need a different commercial cleaner to tackle each problem. An indispensable tool in any kitchen, this ingredient can clean practically anything plus perform some nifty restoration and maintenance tricks. In this article, we’ll show you how to clean just about anythin­g in your kitchen using vinegar, from pans to sinks.

­We’ll start with basic appliances, then move to other areas of the h­ouse:





Sink Stains

Coffeemakers, Teakettles and Teapots

Buildup in a coffeemaker’s brewing system can affect coffee flavor. Get rid of buildup with these steps:

Run 1 brewing cycle of cold water and 1/4 cup vinegar.

Follow with a cycle of clean water.

If you can still smell vinegar, run another cycle using fresh water.

Rinse thoroughly.

Clean a teapot by boiling a 50/50 mixture of vinegar and water for several minutes.

Let it stand for 1 hour.

Rinse with water.


To open up any clogs in the dishwasher drain lines and deodorize the machine.

Add 1/2 cup vinegar to an empty dishwasher.

Run the rinse cycle.

Boil for 3 minutes. Then remove the measuring cup. Wipe inside of oven with a damp sponge. To do this:

Wipe vents with a sponge and undiluted vinegar, or

Remove vents and soak them for 15 minutes in 1 cup vinegar and 3 cups water.

Finish the job by using a sponge to wipe entire surface with a mixture of half vinegar and half water. This will help prevent grease buildup. No need to rinse.

The lingering oily smell or residue should disappear.

Wash as usual.

Aluminum pans can develop ugly dark stains over time, to remove those stains:

Using 2 tablespoons vinegar in enough water to cover the pans.

Boil the pans in a large kettle.

Clean the burned-on mess off a broiler pan:

Add 2 cups vinegar and 1/2 cup sugar to pan while it is still warm.

Soak pan for an hour.

Clean as usual.

Sink Clogs

A mixture of equal parts vinegar, salt, and baking soda may help open up a slow-draining sink:

Pour the solution down drain.

Let it sit for 1 hour.

Then pour boiling or very hot tap water down the drain.

Let it stand for 3 hours.

Flush with hot water.

Sink Odors

The rubber seal on garbage disposals can retain odors. To deodorize it:

Remove the seal.

Let it soak in vinegar for 1 hour.

Let the vinegar sit 15 minutes or longer.

Scrub away deposits with an old toothbrush.

Wipe with a sponge dampened with vinegar.

Stains are best tackled immediately, but for tough or aged stains in a white porcelain sink:

Cover stained areas with paper towels saturated in household bleach (wear rubber gloves and make sure room is well ventilated).

Leave paper towels for 1/2 hour or until they dry out. Remove towels. Rinse area thoroughly.

Follow this treatment by cleaning sink with pure vinegar to remove bleach smell.


Wipe your kitchen countertops with undiluted vinegar once a day to shine them and keep your kitchen smelling fresh.

For everyday cleaning of tile and grout, rub with a little apple cider vinegar on a sponge. This gives off a clean scent. If you enjoyed this information and you would such as to obtain even more details relating to RO housing ( kindly see our website. Will help cut any greasy buildup.


A wooden breadbox tends to become sticky with fingerprints and food. Freshen it up by wiping surface with vinegar on a sponge or cloth. Do this periodically to prevent grime buildup. For heavy buildup, try repeated wipes with a sponge dampened with vinegar and sprinkled with salt.

WaterOsmo: What Is Reverse Osmosis Technology?

Have you ever heard of the term, Reverse Osmosis Technology? Many of us have not, yet it is a process that works with something that we use on a daily basis, which is our drinking water. Reverse Osmosis Technology is a water purification technology, that is used to remove molecules, ions and large particles from our drinking water. Applied pressure is used to overcome osmotic pressure and can remove dissolved and suspended species as well as bacteria, from our drinking water. We will look at the history of reverse osmosis, the process and how there are also portable osmosis processors, for those living in rural areas.

*History — Reverse Osmosis

John Cadotte began with formulating a process called interfacial polymerization, which is connected to reverse osmosis. Cadotte was the first to patent creatively. Perform reverse osmosis. While his patent on this process is expired, many commercial reverse osmosis membranes, are made with this method today. By the year 2001, over fifteen thousand desalination plants, were in the planning or already developed stages worldwide. In 1977, Cape Coral, Florida had one of the first municipal buildings, to have reverse osmosis technology performed inside of its edifice, on a large scale. The city operated and used the reverse osmosis process, while producing over 3 million gallons of water per day. In 1985, due to the large growth in population in the Cape Coral, Florida area, the largest reverse osmosis plant, was processing well over 15 million gallons of water daily.

*The Process — Reverse Osmosis

The process of reverse osmosis, applies pressure to help separate pure water, from sea water and brackish water. This process is what allows us to have the drinking water that we use daily. The process and applied pressure on a solvent, takes it from a high solute concentration, through a semipermeable RO membrane housing, to a low solute concentration. This causes the salt-depleted water across the membrane, from a high solute and pressure position, to transform into a much lower solute and pressure position. This process of going from a high solute concentration to a lower concentration and process, is what helps to create and bring about our drinking or potable water.

*Portable Water Processors

Portable Water Processors, are sold for those to use in rural areas, where people live far away from pure drinking water. The processors must be under a pressure, of at least 40 pounds per square inch or greater. Those people who are fishermen, or live near a river or ocean, use these portable processors, to filter water for purification. These portable water processors are easy to use, UV water sterilizer filter element allowing even the every day layman, the ability to use them, while creating a purer, more filtered, drinking water for rural consumers and their families.

Hopefully, this article has helped you to understand the Reverse Osmosis Technology process. In the hopes of purifying what we use every day, that is our drinking water, you can now see how important to our lives, this technology is. If you treasured this article and also you would like to get more info relating to RO membrane housing price kindly visit our own web page. We don’t realize, how much goes into the water purification process, for making drinking water. But now that we do, we should learn to truly appreciate the reverse osmosis process and what it has done us, as consumers. As always, make sure that your water does have a purification or filtration process, if possible. This makes a difference in what is being allowed to pass through with the water. The filtering process gives our daily drinking water, a way to release all of the bacteria, molecules, ions, rust and other components that are bad for our overall health. The reverse osmosis process alleviates all of this, while giving us peace of mind, that we are drinking water where, the ‘bad stuff’,has been eliminated.

Designing Reverse Osmosis Systems For Large Applications

Reverse osmosis (RO) is currently used in various applications ranging from small under the sink drinking water systems to large municipal drinking water applications. The technology is widely used and accepted as it removes both dissolved ionic and organic impurities. This article will focus on the application of reverse osmosis membranes. Discuss factors that should be considered for large systems. The system design of large RO systems should be considered to improve performance and membrane life.

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Commercial system design

Small commercial systems utilize 2.5″ and 4″ diameter membranes. The membranes are typically housed in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or stainless steel single membrane housings and installed in a vertical configuration. There may be some PVC or stainless steel piping, but hoses are typically used to connect the RO housings. This reduces the cost of the materials and assembly time. In commercial systems, the instrumentation is basic. Depending on the manufacturer, there are usually permeate and concentrate flow rotameters with a concentrate pressure gauge and a motor starter.

Usually, a preprogrammed microprocessor is used to start and stop the RO system, based on product level in the permeate storage tank. The microprocessors also have «pretreatment lockout» to prevent the RO system from running if a media filter is in backwash or softener is in regeneration. Pump low and high pressure protection is included for additional cost.

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Pretreatment of commercial systems should include a multimedia filter, softener and activated carbon filter. The backwashable filter and softener vessels are fibreglass reinforced plastic (FRP) with a timer-based control valve. The RO system should include a «Big Blue» style plastic housing with pre-filter rated at five microns and a 304 stainless steel multistage pump. A stainless steel needle valve is used to control concentrate flow, and reverse osmosis membrane permeate flow varies. Depending on the manufacturer, some parts may be brass rather than stainless steel. This design is based on competitive price pressures. Low cost of the RO membranes.

The commercial system design is controlled by the price. If you are you looking for more about reverse osmosis membrane stop by our web site. If the purchaser is educated to the benefits, concentrate recirculation, pre-filter inlet and outlet pressure gauges, pump throttling valve, soft motor starter or variable frequency drive, FRP vessels, so called «cold water» membranes and permeate pressure gauges can be included.
The commercial RO permeate flow rating is usually close to the maximum allowable of the RO membrane manufacturer, rather than based on the application and membrane flux. Recoveries are 20% to 50% without concentrate recirculation or as high as 75% with concentrate recirculation.

Since the feed water flow rate drops as permeate passes across the membrane, it becomes concentrated with high scaling and fouling containments the further across the membrane surface it flows. In order to minimize the fouling or scaling of the concentrate containments, a minimum flow is required to maintain high velocity and turbulence on the membrane surface. The concentrate recirculation option allows higher recoveries and less wastewater, by mixing feed water with rejected concentrate water.

Design of large reverse osmosis systems

With large systems, many RO membranes are used and the cost of the membranes is significant. Therefore, higher end «heavy industrial» and municipal reverse osmosis systems have a different design philosophy than their smaller commercial counterparts.

The cost of the system is important, but greater weight is placed on the longer-term operation and maximum membrane life and performance. The 2.5″ and 4″ membranes cost between $100 to $350 and there are very few membranes on the system. So the membranes are regarded as disposable and replaced every year or two, even though the performance may have been degrading over time.

In industrial systems, there are multiple 8″ membranes ranging from 18 to 180 per skid with six long vessels, and each membrane typically costs $600 to $800. Reliable performance in salt rejection. Flow are critical for heavy industrial users. Often, the RO water is further polished by electrodeionization (EDI) to achieve ultrapure grade water without chemical regeneration.

Feed water sources

Feed water filter cartridge source is the first concern when designing a reverse osmosis system. The water source for brackish water membranes (BWRO) is typically surface or well water but could be industrial or municipal wastewater. Even if the source is municipally treated water, it is imperative to review where the municipality takes their water. This allows optimal system design as the characteristics of the water source will affect the RO housing membrane operation.

The water source indicates the potential for fouling and scaling. Fouling is the accumulation of solids on the membrane surface and/or feed spacer. Scaling is a chemical reaction where dissolved solids are precipitated out from the feed water on the concentrate side of the membrane. The most common forms of scaling are calcium carbonate, barium sulfate, calcium sulfate, strontium sulfate and calcium fluoride.
Surface water may be from lakes, rivers, reservoirs, etc. It is prone to fouling due to the seasonal fluctuations in suspended solids, biological contaminants and total organic carbon (TOC). Surface water tends to contain low total dissolved solids (TDS), heavy metals and hardness. Typically, surface water is chlorinated to kill bacteria, which results in high organic fouling potential. During rain, the suspended solids may increase.

The two most meaningful methods of measuring suspended solids are turbidity and Silt Density Index (SDI). Turbidity is most commonly measured in Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU). Is increased as the water’s ability to scatter light (transparency) decreases. SDI is a calculation of fouling potential according to test standard ASTM D-4189. It is calculated by flowing water through a 0.45 micron filter at 30 psi in a 500 ml jar, before and after a standard 15 minute run time through the filter. A percentage of plugging is calculated by comparing the time to fill a 500 ml jar with the RO feed water before the test (ti) to the time to fill a 500 ml jar with the RO feed water after the test(tf).

Turbidity should be less than 1.0 NTU for optimal performance. Acceptable SDI levels at the RO inlet are less than 5.0 (15 min test), but SDI should be less than 3.0 for optimal performance.

Well water usually contains very little suspended solids as the earth acts as a natural filter when water drains underground. Well water typically has higher dissolved solids and is frequently high in hardness and heavy metals, and possibly silica.

RO pretreatment is optimized based on the feed water characteristics and source. Suspended solids are removed by filtration. Media filtration is limited to filtering to 10 to 20 microns, while membrane filtration such as ultrafiltration can filter to 0.01 microns.

Water Purifier Market Growth, Industry Analysis, Business Opportunities And Latest Innovations

The water purifier market is anticipated to grow by US$78.6 Billion by 2025 rapidly growing at a CAGR of 17.37%during the forecast period. The global water purifier market is driven by increase in the contaminants, chemical substances, dissolved solids, and other materials. These factors have helped shape the water purifier market. Are expected to boost the growth. Companies in the water purifier market could also face challenges such as lack of awareness about the benefits of pure water along with lack of access to equipment parts. The details covered in the water purifier market report cover all the aspects of the industry. water purifier market analysts have also shared growth projections in the report and have suggested water purifier market players to plan growth strategies accordingly.

The water purifier market is supported by rising preference towards purified water and government initiatives. The population growth around the world and increasing demand of water purifier market based services and products also support the market growth. However, the water purifier market growth can be affected due to the high cost of product parts and replacement material. The report covers all such details which will help companies in the water purifier market to strengthen their business plan and improve their product portfolio. The water purifier market research report also provides company profiles of major companies. The company profiles of many organizations operating in the water purifier market report highlights crucial details like company size, revenue growth, and details of mergers and acquisitions taking place in the water purifier market. New companies and established businesses can plan their strategies based on this data provided in the water purifier market research report.

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Regional Overview

Companies in the water purifier market are spread across the world. The water purifier market report provides major information about regional markets of North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific (APAC), and the rest of the world. The North American water purifier market has many companies across the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Europe has companies in the water purifier market across Germany, France, Spain, Italy, and the United Kingdom. A detailed analysis of the water purifier market across India, China, and Japan in the Asia-Pacific region is also presented in the report. The water purifier market of the Middle East, Africa, and water treatment parts other regions has also been studied by analysts. The regional analysis of the water purifier market can be found in the market research report.

Market Segmentation

The global water purifier market has been segmented based on end-users, product, and devices. On the basis of devices, the market for water purifiers is segmented based on countertop, wall mounted, faucet-mounted, and under-the-sink (UTS), tabletop. Additionally, the market on the basis of product, is segmented into UV water purifier, RO water purifier, and activated carbon filters. The global market for water filter cartridge purifier is also covered based on the end-users segment which is further split into residential and commercial.

Factors like highest population density in countries such as China and India and growing commercial sector support the water purifier market growth. The performance of the water purifier market has also been studied for the past and current years. Additionally, the water purifier market report provides analysis of these segments. The water purifier market segmental analysis provided in the report offers major details about the water purifier market performance and future.

Industry News

Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane filtration is used for most water purifiers that you can find on the market, and the price is usually more than 1,000 yuan (~$150). In certain situations, they need to be attached to a source of electricity and collect waste water as well. A much cheaper option, priced at 499 yuan (~$76), has just been introduced by Xiaomi. Xiaolang Ultrafiltration Water Purifier is the name of the water purifier. Is presently accessible on the Youpin website.

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About Market Research Future:

Market Research Future (MRFR) is an esteemed company with a reputation of serving clients across domains of information technology (IT), healthcare, water filter cartridge review and chemicals. Our analysts undertake painstaking primary. Secondary research to provide a seamless report with a 360 degree perspective. If you have any sort of inquiries concerning where and the best ways to utilize water filter cartridge review, you could contact us at the web site. Data is compared against reputed organizations, trustworthy databases, and international surveys for producing impeccable reports backed with graphical and water treatment parts statistical information. We at MRFR provide syndicated. Customized reports to clients as per their liking. Our consulting services are aimed at eliminating business risks. Driving the bottomline margins of our clients. The hands-on experience of analysts and capability of performing astute research through interviews, surveys, and polls are a statement of our prowess. We constantly monitor the market for any fluctuations. Update our reports on a regular basis.

A T-Bird-type Buckets-and-console Interior

The first Pontiac Grand Prix resembled a dressed-up Catalina hardtop coupe with buckets-and-console interior, but the result was striking and sold well.

The 1962-1964 Pontiac Grand Prix achieved strong sales for General Motors during its run, thanks in part to two influential GM executives. If the 1963 Pontiac Grand Prix testified to the design brilliance of General Motors styling chief Bill Mitchell, the original ’62 model testified to the marketing brilliance of Semon E. «Bunkie» Knudsen. In case you loved this information and you want to receive more information concerning UV water sterilizer on sale i implore you to visit our internet site. The Grand Prix was, in fact, Knudsen’s parting gift after six years as division general manager during which the Pontiac Grand Prix rose from sixth in industry sales to a strong fourth and finally third for ’62 — a stellar achievement for a medium-price make.

In creating the Grand Prix, Bunkie took his cue from the high success of Ford’s post-1957 four-seat Thunderbirds. The idea was simplicity itself: a Catalina hardtop coupe with unique styling touches. A T-Bird-type buckets-and-console interior. Interestingly, the new model was conceived for the Ventura nameplate, and it effectively replaced that slow-selling Catalina-based series. But Grand Prix was an inspired choice, with its heroic images of Formula 1 competition — and, of course, its literal French meaning, «great prize. But the whole was far greater than the sum of these parts. As Motor Trend stated: «Style-wise and price-wise [the Grand Prix] competes directly with the Thunderbird. Performance-wise, it’s in a class by itself.»

True enough. There were no fewer than five versions of Pontiac’s superb Trophy 389 V-8, from a 230-horsepower economy special to a high-compression Tri-Power job (three two-barrel carburetors) with a hefty 348 blip. Speaking of heft, less weight and more available power gave the GP a decided performance edge on the Thunderbird. MT reported 0-60 mph taking a brief eight seconds.

Three-speed manual shift was standard, but most GPs were ordered with «Roto» Hydra-Matic, a new three-speed torque-converter automatic shared with Catalina, priced at $231. For the same money, confirmed leadfoots could specify four-speed manual floorshift, as well as seven different axle ratios.

©2007 Publications International, Ltd.

Sales for the 1962-1964 Pontiac Grand Prix varied by year. The 1962 Pontiac Grand Prix was a so-so seller. It wasn’t that cheap at nearly $3,600, and it cost little less than a T-Bird when optioned to match. GP did best Oldsmobile’s comparably priced Starfire, but trailed Thunderbird by 2-to-l.

The ’63 sold much better, thanks to peerless styling. Like other big Pontiacs, the GP wore slightly curvier contours enhanced by newly stacked quad headlamps, clean bodysides devoid of sculpturing, straight A-pillars and-the crowning touch — an exclusive razor-edge roofline with concave backlight (replacing the previous pseudo-convertible treatment). Despite a mere 1.3-inch gain in overall length, the effect was a larger, «more important» Grand Prix, and it turned heads everywhere.9-inch wider tracks (64 inches total). But curb weight was hardly affected, and power was more plentiful, the two most potent 389s replaced by a pair of new 421s (a size first seen in ’61) with 353 bhp (four-barrel) and 370 bhp (Tri-Power). Though they cost a towering $400 each, the 421s delivered equally towering performance. MT timed its 370-bhp job at just 6.6 seconds 0-60. Then again, even the lowly 303-bhp 389 could run that sprint in under 10 seconds.

Of course, no car is perfect and neither was the ’63 GP. Suspension remained a bit soft, the Hydra-Matic was still plagued by excess slippage, the console-mounted vacuum gauge (replacing the ’62 tach) was so hard to see as to be virtually useless, and a new «Cordova» vinyl roof covering was a questionable use of $86.08. But heavy-duty suspension was optional, too, along with Pontiac’s handsome multi-spoke aluminum wheels ($122.13), and the performance and styling were all anyone could want. As a result, nearly 250 percent more buyers wanted Grand Prix in ’63, a high-water mark that wouldn’t be duplicated for another six years.

But this winning design wouldn’t last long. The ’64 was basically the ’63 with a modest facelift and minor mechanical upgrades. After that, all full-size Pontiacs swelled to hippy, heroic new proportions. Not until 1969 would Grand Prix again offer the sort of manageable sports-luxury it had in the beginning, which explains why the 1962-64 models are now so coveted as collector cars. They were, and are, some of Pontiac’s best.

The 1962-1964 Pontiac Grand Prix’s performance was a major part of its appeal. Get the Grand Prix’s specifications on the next page.

Engines: all ohv V-8; 389 cid (4.06 × 3.75); 230/303/318/333/348 bhp (1962), 230/303/313 bhp (1963), 230/303/ 306/330 bhp (1964); 421 cid (4.09 × 4.): 120.0

Weight (lbs.): 3835-3930

Top speed (mph): 105-125+

0-60 mph (sec): 6.6-10.