Why do women live longer than men?

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men — but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so longer than men in the present, and why has this advantage increased over time? The evidence is limited and we’re only able to provide partial answers. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women are healthier than men; but we don’t know exactly how significant the impact of each factor is.

In spite of the amount of weight, we are aware that at least a portion of the reason women live so much longer than men do today, but not in the past, Trademarksexchange.com/author/suzettewats/ has to do with the fact that some fundamental non-biological factors have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is over the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl from every country could expect to live longer than her younger brother.

Interestingly, this chart shows that, while the advantage for women exists in all countries, global differences are significant. In Russia women have a longer life span than men, while in Bhutan the gap is just half one year.

The female advantage in life expectancy was much lower in developed countries as compared to the present.
We will now examine how the advantage of women in life expectancy has changed over time. The next chart compares the male and female lifespans when they were born in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two aspects stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Men and women living in America are living longer than they used to 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is getting wider: Although the advantage of women in life expectancy used to be tiny but it has risen significantly over time.

It is possible to verify that the points you’ve listed are applicable to other countries with data by clicking on the «Change country» option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.