RO Pretreatment Systems

Reverse osmosis (RO) is a filtration method that removes many types of large molecules. Ions from solutions by applying pressure to the solution when it is on one side of a selective membrane. The result is that the solute is retained on the pressurized side of the membrane. The pure solvent is allowed to pass to the other side. To be «selective,» this membrane should not allow large molecules or ions through the pores (holes), but should allow smaller components of the solution (such as the solvent) to pass freely.

Reverse osmosis is most commonly known for its use in drinking water purification from seawater, removing the salt and other substances from the water molecules. This is the reverse of the normal osmosis process, in which the solvent naturally moves from an area of low solute concentration, through a membrane, to an area of high solute concentration. The movement of a pure solvent to equalize solute concentrations on each side of a membrane generates a pressure and this is the «osmotic pressure.» Applying an external pressure to reverse the natural flow of pure solvent, thus, is reverse osmosis.

The process is similar to membrane filtration. However, there are key differences between reverse osmosis and filtration. The predominant removal mechanism in membrane filtration is straining, or size exclusion, so the process can theoretically achieve perfect exclusion of particles regardless of operational parameters such as influent pressure and concentration. Reverse osmosis, however involves a diffusive mechanism so that separation efficiency is dependent on solute concentration, pressure and water flux rate. Pretreatment is important when working with RO. Nanofiltration (NF) membranes due to the nature of their spiral wound design. The material is engineered in such a fashion as to allow only one-way flow through the system. As such, the spiral wound design does not allow for back pulsing with water or air agitation to scour its surface and remove solids. Since accumulated material cannot be removed from the membrane surface systems, they are highly susceptible to fouling (loss of production capacity). Therefore, RO membrane housing pretreatment is a necessity for any RO or NF system. Pretreatment in SWRO systems has four major components:

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* Screening of solids: Solids within the water must be removed and the water treatment parts treated to prevent fouling of the membranes by fine particle or biological growth, and reduce the risk of damage to high-pressure pump components.

* Cartridge filtration: Generally, string-wound polypropylene filters are used to remove particles between 3 — 5 microns.

* Dosing: Oxidizing biocides, such as chlorine, are added to kill bacteria, followed by bisulfite dosing to deactivate the chlorine, which can destroy a thin-film composite membrane. There are also biofouling inhibitors, which do not kill bacteria, but simply prevent them from growing slime on the membrane surface.

* Prefiltration pH adjustment: If the pH, hardness and the alkalinity in the feedwater result in a scaling tendency when they are concentrated in the reject stream, acid is dosed to maintain carbonates in their soluble carbonic acid form.

CO3-2 + H3O+ = HCO3- + H2O
HCO3- + H3O+ = H2CO3 + H2O

* Carbonic acid cannot combine with calcium to form calcium carbonate scale. If you loved this short article and you would like to receive far more info with regards to UV water sterilizer [] kindly take a look at our site. Calcium carbonate scaling tendency is estimated using the Langelier saturation index. Adding too much sulfuric acid to control carbonate scales may result in calcium sulfate, barium sulfate or UV water sterilizer strontium sulfate scale formation on the RO membrane.

* Prefiltration antiscalants: Scale inhibitors (also known as antiscalants) prevent formation of all scales compared to acid, which can only prevent formation of calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate scales. In addition to inhibiting carbonate and phosphate scales, antiscalants inhibit sulfate and fluoride scales, disperse colloids and metal oxides, and specialty products can be to inhibit silica formation.

Which Is The Best Ro Water Purifier For Home Use In India

Before choosing a purifier, it is important to understand the water purification technologies available and which one will be good for you. It is because the one-type-fits-all formula doesn’t work while selecting a water purification system. Different water purification targets different types of water conditions. Let’s have a look at it.

Water is known to have the best solvent properties which can dissolve pollutants, bacteria, viruses, and other harmful chemicals that make it polluted pretty quickly. Sometimes these contaminants can cause various waterborne diseases which can be life-threatening. If you want to protect your loved ones from such kinds of hazards then a water purifier is a compulsory appliance for your home.

However, before settling down, you must know which one is the best model of water purifier that can fulfill you and your family’s needs! This also depends on what kind of filtered water purifiers. Their functions you are looking for.

Before I provide you the detailed research and the list of best water purifiers that can be found in India based on their performance, quality of water dispensed, price, and brand, let’s check out what kind of filters are available for home use in India.

Types of Purification Technologies Available in India:

Before choosing a purifier, it is important to understand the water purification technologies available and which one will be good for water treatment parts you. It is because the one-type-fits-all formula doesn’t work while selecting a water purification system. Different water purification targets different types of water conditions. Let’s have a look at it:

Ultraviolet or UV Water Purifiers

The primary concern for most Indians have regarding the water that is used for drinking is the widespread water-borne diseases. Water sources serve as the breeding grounds for microorganisms which can lead to many life-threatening illnesses.

Many people boil water in order to filter out these impurities. Sometimes boiling is not enough as the water will still be prone to contamination. At that point in time, Ultraviolet or UV filters come in handy as the wavelength destroys the microorganisms’ DNA. It can kill the bacteria, prevent them from reproduction, and save you from getting sick. However, it can deactivate the organisms, it is unable to separate other particles, or remove bad taste and odor.

If you are opting for a UV purifier, then there is nothing to be worried about regarding its safety. Water which is treated with UV is completely safe for drinking. It doesn’t alter the water composition or even use any harmful chemicals.

Ultrafiltration or UF Water Purifiers

UF purifiers are pretty similar to RO. It also uses a semi-permeable membrane to separate impurities from water. But, these two products are not entirely the same. UF uses a membrane with larger pores, i. In the event you liked this informative article in addition to you would want to be given details concerning water filter element ( kindly go to our own site. e., 0.01 when compared with the RO membrane which uses 0.0001. Larger pores mean that the water can pass easily without any pressure, unlike RO.

UF filters don’t hold back or even wastewater like RO. If you are worried about electricity or water wastage then UF is the best option for you. However, it is not recommended for hard water sources or water which has high TDS.

Reverse Osmosis or RO Water Purifiers

RO water purifiers are the best choice for almost all Indian households. These purifiers are so famous in India that the term RO has become a synonym for water purifiers. If these purifiers are combined with other filters like UV, UF, and MF, they can remove almost all commonly found impurities like mud, sand, bacteria, viruses, excess dissolved solids like magnesium, calcium, and heavy metals like lead, arsenic, etc. It is also the most important. Reliable technology in the water purification method.

Here are some water purifiers you can use at home:

HUL Pureit Ultima Mineral RO+UV+MF 7 Stage Water Purifier

This purifier is ideal for families with five to six members. This black beauty purifier can clean contaminated water through its UV and RO processes and can terminate 10 million germs and impurities from a liter of water.

The model also contains a system for an advanced alert that can indicate to you that it’s time to change the GermKill cartridge. It also comes with a TDS controller as well as a modulator. Its neon light can also be used to notify about the usage. It can also help to save your electricity bill with its auto shut-off feature.

HUL Pureit Advanced RO+MF 6 Stage Water Purifier

This purifier from HUL has a water storage capacity of five liters, has an auto shut-off feature that helps to switch off the machine once the tank is full, and it also starts working automatically when the storage tank becomes empty.

This chich purifier is made up of high long-lasting grade plastic which is completely trouble-free to clean and maintain. It can process impure water of up to 1800 PPM TDS level. Has an in-built diaphragm pump which works well in areas where the pressure is from 5 to 30 PSI.

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HUL Pureit Copper+Mineral RO+UV+MF Water Purifier

As we all have seen, nowadays, more brands are focusing on the goodness of copper in drinking water.

Similarly, HUL has launched Copper+ Mineral RO which adds the goodness of copper in the purified water.

This purifier has an advanced 7-stage RO+UV+MF filter with a unique Copper Charge Technology that can enrich your purified water with real-time copper.

We all know or have heard from our ancestors that drinking water is an age-old tradition that is based on ancient Ayurvedic wisdom. Copper has many essential properties and reverse osmosis membrane minerals which can help in improving digestion, fight obesity, maintain immunity, and promote overall health.

Water purifiers have become an important part of everyday life with an increase in pollution, contamination, and other impurities. Select only the best brands for you and your family.

Let It Stand For 3 Hours

Vinegar can be used to prevent grease buildup in your oven.

Mos­t people find that the kitchen­ is the most difficult room in their home to keep clean. And with good reason! ­With an endless supply of spills, drips, greasy pans­, and foot traffic, kitchen cleanup can feel like an endless series of tasks.

But thanks to vinegar, you don’t need a different commercial cleaner to tackle each problem. An indispensable tool in any kitchen, this ingredient can clean practically anything plus perform some nifty restoration and maintenance tricks. In this article, we’ll show you how to clean just about anythin­g in your kitchen using vinegar, from pans to sinks.

­We’ll start with basic appliances, then move to other areas of the h­ouse:





Sink Stains

Coffeemakers, Teakettles and Teapots

Buildup in a coffeemaker’s brewing system can affect coffee flavor. Get rid of buildup with these steps:

Run 1 brewing cycle of cold water and 1/4 cup vinegar.

Follow with a cycle of clean water.

If you can still smell vinegar, run another cycle using fresh water.

Rinse thoroughly.

Clean a teapot by boiling a 50/50 mixture of vinegar and water for several minutes.

Let it stand for 1 hour.

Rinse with water.


To open up any clogs in the dishwasher drain lines and deodorize the machine.

Add 1/2 cup vinegar to an empty dishwasher.

Run the rinse cycle.

Boil for 3 minutes. Then remove the measuring cup. Wipe inside of oven with a damp sponge. To do this:

Wipe vents with a sponge and undiluted vinegar, or

Remove vents and soak them for 15 minutes in 1 cup vinegar and 3 cups water.

Finish the job by using a sponge to wipe entire surface with a mixture of half vinegar and half water. This will help prevent grease buildup. No need to rinse.

The lingering oily smell or residue should disappear.

Wash as usual.

Aluminum pans can develop ugly dark stains over time, to remove those stains:

Using 2 tablespoons vinegar in enough water to cover the pans.

Boil the pans in a large kettle.

Clean the burned-on mess off a broiler pan:

Add 2 cups vinegar and 1/2 cup sugar to pan while it is still warm.

Soak pan for an hour.

Clean as usual.

Sink Clogs

A mixture of equal parts vinegar, salt, and baking soda may help open up a slow-draining sink:

Pour the solution down drain.

Let it sit for 1 hour.

Then pour boiling or very hot tap water down the drain.

Let it stand for 3 hours.

Flush with hot water.

Sink Odors

The rubber seal on garbage disposals can retain odors. To deodorize it:

Remove the seal.

Let it soak in vinegar for 1 hour.

Let the vinegar sit 15 minutes or longer.

Scrub away deposits with an old toothbrush.

Wipe with a sponge dampened with vinegar.

Stains are best tackled immediately, but for tough or aged stains in a white porcelain sink:

Cover stained areas with paper towels saturated in household bleach (wear rubber gloves and make sure room is well ventilated).

Leave paper towels for 1/2 hour or until they dry out. Remove towels. Rinse area thoroughly.

Follow this treatment by cleaning sink with pure vinegar to remove bleach smell.


Wipe your kitchen countertops with undiluted vinegar once a day to shine them and keep your kitchen smelling fresh.

For everyday cleaning of tile and grout, rub with a little apple cider vinegar on a sponge. This gives off a clean scent. If you enjoyed this information and you would such as to obtain even more details relating to RO housing ( kindly see our website. Will help cut any greasy buildup.


A wooden breadbox tends to become sticky with fingerprints and food. Freshen it up by wiping surface with vinegar on a sponge or cloth. Do this periodically to prevent grime buildup. For heavy buildup, try repeated wipes with a sponge dampened with vinegar and sprinkled with salt.

Designing Reverse Osmosis Systems For Large Applications

Reverse osmosis (RO) is currently used in various applications ranging from small under the sink drinking water systems to large municipal drinking water applications. The technology is widely used and accepted as it removes both dissolved ionic and organic impurities. This article will focus on the application of reverse osmosis membranes. Discuss factors that should be considered for large systems. The system design of large RO systems should be considered to improve performance and membrane life.

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Commercial system design

Small commercial systems utilize 2.5″ and 4″ diameter membranes. The membranes are typically housed in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or stainless steel single membrane housings and installed in a vertical configuration. There may be some PVC or stainless steel piping, but hoses are typically used to connect the RO housings. This reduces the cost of the materials and assembly time. In commercial systems, the instrumentation is basic. Depending on the manufacturer, there are usually permeate and concentrate flow rotameters with a concentrate pressure gauge and a motor starter.

Usually, a preprogrammed microprocessor is used to start and stop the RO system, based on product level in the permeate storage tank. The microprocessors also have «pretreatment lockout» to prevent the RO system from running if a media filter is in backwash or softener is in regeneration. Pump low and high pressure protection is included for additional cost.

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Pretreatment of commercial systems should include a multimedia filter, softener and activated carbon filter. The backwashable filter and softener vessels are fibreglass reinforced plastic (FRP) with a timer-based control valve. The RO system should include a «Big Blue» style plastic housing with pre-filter rated at five microns and a 304 stainless steel multistage pump. A stainless steel needle valve is used to control concentrate flow, and reverse osmosis membrane permeate flow varies. Depending on the manufacturer, some parts may be brass rather than stainless steel. This design is based on competitive price pressures. Low cost of the RO membranes.

The commercial system design is controlled by the price. If you are you looking for more about reverse osmosis membrane stop by our web site. If the purchaser is educated to the benefits, concentrate recirculation, pre-filter inlet and outlet pressure gauges, pump throttling valve, soft motor starter or variable frequency drive, FRP vessels, so called «cold water» membranes and permeate pressure gauges can be included.
The commercial RO permeate flow rating is usually close to the maximum allowable of the RO membrane manufacturer, rather than based on the application and membrane flux. Recoveries are 20% to 50% without concentrate recirculation or as high as 75% with concentrate recirculation.

Since the feed water flow rate drops as permeate passes across the membrane, it becomes concentrated with high scaling and fouling containments the further across the membrane surface it flows. In order to minimize the fouling or scaling of the concentrate containments, a minimum flow is required to maintain high velocity and turbulence on the membrane surface. The concentrate recirculation option allows higher recoveries and less wastewater, by mixing feed water with rejected concentrate water.

Design of large reverse osmosis systems

With large systems, many RO membranes are used and the cost of the membranes is significant. Therefore, higher end «heavy industrial» and municipal reverse osmosis systems have a different design philosophy than their smaller commercial counterparts.

The cost of the system is important, but greater weight is placed on the longer-term operation and maximum membrane life and performance. The 2.5″ and 4″ membranes cost between $100 to $350 and there are very few membranes on the system. So the membranes are regarded as disposable and replaced every year or two, even though the performance may have been degrading over time.

In industrial systems, there are multiple 8″ membranes ranging from 18 to 180 per skid with six long vessels, and each membrane typically costs $600 to $800. Reliable performance in salt rejection. Flow are critical for heavy industrial users. Often, the RO water is further polished by electrodeionization (EDI) to achieve ultrapure grade water without chemical regeneration.

Feed water sources

Feed water filter cartridge source is the first concern when designing a reverse osmosis system. The water source for brackish water membranes (BWRO) is typically surface or well water but could be industrial or municipal wastewater. Even if the source is municipally treated water, it is imperative to review where the municipality takes their water. This allows optimal system design as the characteristics of the water source will affect the RO housing membrane operation.

The water source indicates the potential for fouling and scaling. Fouling is the accumulation of solids on the membrane surface and/or feed spacer. Scaling is a chemical reaction where dissolved solids are precipitated out from the feed water on the concentrate side of the membrane. The most common forms of scaling are calcium carbonate, barium sulfate, calcium sulfate, strontium sulfate and calcium fluoride.
Surface water may be from lakes, rivers, reservoirs, etc. It is prone to fouling due to the seasonal fluctuations in suspended solids, biological contaminants and total organic carbon (TOC). Surface water tends to contain low total dissolved solids (TDS), heavy metals and hardness. Typically, surface water is chlorinated to kill bacteria, which results in high organic fouling potential. During rain, the suspended solids may increase.

The two most meaningful methods of measuring suspended solids are turbidity and Silt Density Index (SDI). Turbidity is most commonly measured in Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU). Is increased as the water’s ability to scatter light (transparency) decreases. SDI is a calculation of fouling potential according to test standard ASTM D-4189. It is calculated by flowing water through a 0.45 micron filter at 30 psi in a 500 ml jar, before and after a standard 15 minute run time through the filter. A percentage of plugging is calculated by comparing the time to fill a 500 ml jar with the RO feed water before the test (ti) to the time to fill a 500 ml jar with the RO feed water after the test(tf).

Turbidity should be less than 1.0 NTU for optimal performance. Acceptable SDI levels at the RO inlet are less than 5.0 (15 min test), but SDI should be less than 3.0 for optimal performance.

Well water usually contains very little suspended solids as the earth acts as a natural filter when water drains underground. Well water typically has higher dissolved solids and is frequently high in hardness and heavy metals, and possibly silica.

RO pretreatment is optimized based on the feed water characteristics and source. Suspended solids are removed by filtration. Media filtration is limited to filtering to 10 to 20 microns, while membrane filtration such as ultrafiltration can filter to 0.01 microns.

Sediment Water Filters And Replacement Cartridges

Sediment Water Filters are used to reduce or completely remove physical particles that are larger than a particular size from source water. Typical sediment filter is rated at 20 micron (ok), 10 micron (better), 5-1 micron (better yet) , or sub-micron (less than 1 micron, best but the slowest). A micron rating means that all particles larger than that will be trapped by a filter.

Commonly used Sediment Water Filters are spun or pleated. Spun filters use polypropylene, cellulose or similar material that is spun to produce a filter. They are cheaper. Will wear out faster. Pleated filters have more dirt holding capacity, some of them can be washed, RO membrane housing and they last longer.

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How Do Reverse Osmosis Membranes Work And What Affects Quality And Production?

Osmosis is the flow from a high concentration of water to a low concentration of water. To help understand the flow of water imagine a sealed filled water balloon with a hole in it – what happens to…

Osmosis is the flow from a high concentration of water to a low concentration of water. To help understand the flow of water imagine a sealed filled water balloon with a hole in it – what happens to the water inside? The water quickly leaves balloon because of the concentration of water inside the balloon is higher than outside which makes the water wants to equalize the concentration of water.

Reverse osmosis is quite the opposite. The flow of water is from a low concentration to a high concentration. Imagine an empty balloon – if youre filling the water balloon with a hose then you are using the water pressure. Forcing water against its natural equalization tendencies.

A reverse osmosis (RO housing) membrane is simply a thin semi-permeable layer that separates two solutions. If you adored this write-up and UV water sterilizer you would like to get additional facts concerning membrane housing (mouse click the up coming document) kindly go to the web site. A ro membrane is a type of physical separation that is capable of separating molecules down to 1/10,000 micron. Since the size of the pores on the membrane is so small, it requires pressure to force water through. Most molecules are too large to pass through a reverse osmosis membrane but small enough for some salts, sugars and water molecules to pass through. Rejection rates of ro membranes average around 96-98% under ideal conditions (250 ppm softened tapwater, 77°F (25°C), 50 psig (3.4 bar), and 15% recovery).

TDS levels, temperature, pressure and recovery rates are all things that affect the product water quality of reverse osmosis membrane. Feed water pressure affects both the product water production. The rejection rates of RO membranes. The increase of feed water pressure directly increases the water production. Rejection rates also increase when pressure is increased but will plateau.

Effect of Temperature

Temperature has a direct linear effect to production rates. As temperature increase, water production increases almost linearly because of the higher diffusion rates of water through the membrane. Rejection rates are actually lowered when temperature rises. This is due to a higher diffusion rate of salt across the membrane.

Effect of Salt Concentration or TDS

TDS inversely affects the pressure required for reverse osmosis which in turn affects the production rates. If feed water was constant and reverse osmosis membrane system TDS increases then the production rate decreases because of the osmotic pressure difference.

Osmotic pressure is the pressure and potential energy required to force water to move against its natural direction across a semi-permeable membrane. Every 100 ppm (parts per million) in TDS equals 1 psi (pounds per square inch). The higher the TDS, the more pressure required to force through the membrane.

Effect of Recovery Rates

Recovery rate refers to the amount of product water being produced which is controlled by the flow restriction on the waste line. Most reverse osmosis systems are sized with a sized flow restrictor will have a product to waste ratio of 1 to 4 which is a recovery rate of 25% this is made purposefully as a sales point to produce more product water but lower the rejection rate. For example, the proper size for a 50 GPD membrane is a 15% recovery rate or a 1 to 6.7 ratio. Lowering the recovery rates will increase the rejection rate and improve the quality of water. Raising the recovery rates will cause the quality of the product water to decrease. Will affect the required driving pressure needed for reverse osmosis to take effect.

Traditional Medicine In The Balkans

Nowadays the Balkans is an area spared of the active, polluting industry of the rest of the planet. Thousands of years ago the Balkans were very sparsely populated, which made it possible for anyone to occupy it and settle there. Because of the favorable climate, the Balkans was occupied by Slaves, Greeks, Turks and by other smaller migratory nations who came from the Asian parts as a rule. All of them found here good earth and climate for development and for the future. In the Balkans, both the climate is very good and the drinkable water is pure, taking into account that there are many mountainous massifs that make it possible.

Traditional medicine has deep roots in each nation’s cultures and customs. In the past it used to be very closely connected with religion. As a rule, the priests of various religions (and we must mention here that each nation had its deities) were also physicians. As a matter of fact, medicine and religion have been intertwined or very closely connected ever since there was a recorded history of Earth. Here we must mention the examples of Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity and Islamism. It is a proven fact that, in all religions, irrespective of the deities they believed in, the physician was also a priest in 70% of the cases.

Obviously, it is easy to understand why there used to be such a close connection at the beginning of the civilizations. The reason is that religion means unity, connections towards a goal, namely mysticism and deities. Or, medicine means treatment of the body. In old times, mysticism and treatment of the body were connected.Traditional medicine is as old as the human being, because — when the human being has been born — he needed medical care; only the traditional medicine could provide such care.

The Balkan physicians treated rich and poor alike; it didn’t matter how rich you were, it mattered only how ill you were and what the priorities were. Here is more info in regards to membrane housing how much review our own site. Writing on little stone slabs dating back thousands of years bear evidence that physicians in the Balkans made an oath before gods, an oath by which they engaged themselves to treat all patients, irrespective of their wealth. Skulls were found, dating more than 5 thousand years back, bearing marks of surgery, namely trepanations, which had been so accurately performed, that surgeons envy the precision of the intervention even today. Hence a lot of questions arise: what devices could the first generations possibly have had, as long as metals and metalwork were discovered only much later? How did the surgeons at that time know to perform this kind of surgeries, when the science of surgery discovered them only much later? How could possibly exist writing techniques so advanced that the stone slabs were made to last for thousands of years without being completely eroded?

Physicians of those times were a highly respected category. We can infer it from the drawings that were found, depicting the deity, the priest and the physician as well as the figure of the last one wearing a crown on his head, which meant that he was the king of the people. We find in the same writings that 1) a sick man was treated according to his ailment (it is what we call diagnosing today); things like: 2) how the ailment occurred (we call it the cause of the disease today), 3) how to get rid of the ailment (treatment) and 4) the history of the disease and the methods to eradicate it (which stands for pathology today). In old times, people used to guide themselves in the traditional medicine after certain principles such as: life is full of pain and suffering; life is the cause of all this pain; pain can be eradicated and, not in the least, there is a direction or a way leading to the eradication of all pain. In other words, unless we eliminate the causes of pain, we cannot find the real salvation or the salvation in truth.

At the beginning, they practiced traditional medicine as moral duty towards each suffering man, not as somebody’s duty, somebody who would be praised for that. Later, this moral duty became a job, and it has remained a job to this day. The first civilizations may have been right. The traditional medicine should have been. Should be only the moral duty of every man to help his kin even nowadays. At the beginning, the first civilizations who settled in the Balkans created a special branch in the medical field: health and the role of medicine for a healthy population. Because there were — and are at present, too — many nationalities in the Balkans, each of them had a god of health. Therefore several deities are known as the god of health, such as: Telecfor, Iazo, Panaceea, Asclepios, Macsaon, Podalirii and others. Orpheus, the Thracian god of medicine and music is well-known. At a much later date become known the works on philosophy and medicine written by Plato, Socrates, Pythagoras, Aristotle, Hippocrates and Galen.

One of the greatest physicians ever known, one who successfully treated every disease in the old times was Orpheus. He used to treat a great number of affections through herbs. The herb by means of which he treated the best is known as HABERLEA RHODOPENSIS today, or commonly called the Orpheus’ flower. It successfully treats generalized cancer, but only if it is used in combination with very many other herbs. Orpheus’ successor, Zamolxis — both a physician and a high priest — was the patron and the representative high figure of Thracian medicine. Information can be found in Herodotus’ works about Zamolxis. About the downright wonders he worked through traditional medicine. In Plato’s writings, in Harmid to be more precise, they say among other things: Zamolxis was the Thracians’ emperor, but also their god. As their god, he helped his subjects get cured of every disease, by means of herbs. In the course of time, the Balkan medicine has proven that it can treat any affection by its methods, namely by herbal hydro-alcoholic extracts, dressings of medicinal herbs, in natural state or chewed. At the same time, it proved that you cannot treat the eye without treating the body, but also that you cannot treat the body without treating the soul.

Obviously, the Greek people acknowledged after a long time that the condition of one part of the body influenced the condition of the entire body. The Balkan traditional medicine proved that the soul is the source out of which everything, good as well as evil, would reflect upon the body and which would generally define the personality. The Balkan traditional medicine proved that we had to treat the problems of our head in the first place. Consequently, the rest of our body would be healthy. In the way he set up the medical science, even Hyppocrates, 460-377 before our era, father of modern medicine, was directly influenced by Zamolxis’ treatment principles. Fundamentally, the Balkan traditional medicine employed water, herbs, music and the dialogue with the patient. The sick man was taken out in the sun, in the middle of the forest, when they applied him various procedures, it is a known and acknowledged fact. As he was treated, he could also listen to the song of the birds and to the music of the nature.

The Slave peoples, the Bulgarians, the Serbians, the Macedonians and the Thracians believed that it was demons that caused the disorders and the affections. They also thought at the beginning that the evil spirits’ kiss brought the herpes or that evil spirits make children cry or make them trip and break a bone. They also believed that fairies or moires helped people get cured. Helped them find the healing herbs. Later they believed that Tangra, their supreme god, taught them how to treat their kin and what herbs they should use. Much later, the medicine of these peoples came to a balance and the category of physicians was born who treated the population by means of herbal extracts, water or other things. The sick men were treated at their home or on the battle field by the traditional medicine physicians. The first known hospital dates back to the year of 369 our era. Later, the sick men were treated in an organized manner and within the precincts of every monastery.

In the course of time, the Balkan traditional medicine has had a very important role in the world. The herbal treatment is very rich in minerals, vitamins and many other things. The traditional medicine knows approximately 750 thousands medicinal herbs on Earth, out of which about 300 thousand ones are from the Balkans. In the traditional medicine, each part of the plant, such as the leaf, the flower, the stem, the fruit or the root — is used for something, either by itself or in combinations. Modern medicine has studied the effect of each herb scientifically. That is why we often find combinations between the herb or a part of it and biochemistry. Traditional medicine rejects this combination because — while by herbal extract or plain pure herbs the result is guaranteed — by combinations it is nothing but experiments. It has been proven so far that, through its experience and history, the Balkan medicine has treated and it still treats over 5 thousand affections. According to each particular issue area, the Balkan traditional medicine has its specific and its benefits. The traditional medicine specialist learns and trains himself in traditional medicine, which means that he knows the traditional medicine in all its complexity. Although very complex, the traditional medicine brings and reverse osmosis membrane will always bring the solution to each human health problem.